Which Statement Describes a System of Cooperative Federalism

Cooperative federalism, also known as marble cake federalism, is defined as a flexible relationship between the federal and state governments, in which the two work together on a variety of issues and programs. The modern view of cooperative federalism is very different from the model used in the nineteenth century. In the 1970s, federal mandates became more demanding and binding and no longer emphasized unconditional support for states. The national government has also set compliance deadlines and could punish states that fail to comply. In the U.S. federal system, there are limits to the ability of the national government to conduct its policies through the executive branch of state governments. In der Rechtssache Printz v. United States, 521 U.S. For example, in Case 898 (1997), the Court held that the national government could not directly require state law enforcement agencies to conduct background checks under brady`s gun legislation. The court said previous decisions had warned that „this court has never expressly authorized a federal order to states to make and enforce laws and regulations.“ And yet, in a federal system, there are significant benefits to receiving government support in the local implementation of federal programs. The implementation of such programmes by national staff would greatly increase the size and intrusiveness of the national government.

In addition, local implementation can ensure that these programmes are implemented in a way that takes into account local conditions. Cooperative federalism is defined as a type of government in which federal, state, and local governments interact cooperatively and collectively, solving common problems and developing policies equally. According to this concept, for example, the federal government becomes a more active organization when certain issues are reserved for the states, because it has more time and energy to invest in other issues. „The federal government is becoming more actively involved in issues that were once reserved for the Länder.“ Explanation: Cooperative federalism is defined as a type of government in which federal, state, and local governments interact cooperatively and collectively, solving common problems and developing policies equally. For this reason, Congress has often avoided passing fully nationalized programs by one of two means. In the first, Congress creates a system of federal program implementation in which the national government promotes the local implementation of a federal program by providing significant funding. In this context, the expression can be found in a number of cases of the Federal Supreme Court and lower courts. The most common early use of the term can be found in a number of cases that describe the paradigm of government-sponsored social assistance programs such as medical assistance or former family assistance programs with dependent children (AFDC), where a participating state`s program is largely funded by the federal government on the basis of a matching fund. is subject to binding federal regulations. See e.B King v. Smith and a number of subsequent AFDC cases.

More recently, the term has been used in the context of other federal programs based on the model of cooperative federalism. See California v. U.S. 438 U.S. 645 (1978) (Reclamation Act) and Schaffer v. Weist (Special Education). Here, the motivation for complying with state regulations is that the state loses significant federal funds without the state complying with federal conditions. Cooperative federalism is a model of interstate relations that recognizes the overlapping functions of national and state governments.

This model can be compared to the model of dual federalism, which claims that national and state governments have different and distinct governmental functions. „. Cooperative federalism raises new – largely unexplored – constitutional problems. Unlike the context of civil regulation, cooperation specifically threatens the constitutional rights of individual defendants by allowing leaders to bypass juries, judges, and local laws. In addition, this cooperation can also weaken the ability of states and cities to act as political entities capable of holding their law enforcement officers accountable in an area of traditional police violence in states. [2] The model of cooperative federalism was expanded during Franklin D. Roosevelt`s New Deal. The national government`s influence on social policy continued after World War II and into the 1960s, when Lyndon B. Johnson declared his war on poverty. Johnson`s efforts to expand this safety net are often referred to as „creative federalism.“ We also see the widespread use of cooperative federalism in the implementation of federal legislation criminalizing the possession of drugs and firearms. The federal government does not have a police force capable of enforcing this type of crime; It must rely on national and local police forces. As a result, the federal government has adopted programs such as Project Safe Neighborhoods that encourage collaboration between state and local police forces/county prosecutors and state prosecutors.

This type of cooperation can have problematic implications. As William Partlett writes, although the term „cooperative federalism“ originated in the 1930s, the roots of cooperative federalism can be traced back to the government of Thomas Jefferson. During the nineteenth century, the national government used land concessions to support various state government programs such as higher education, veteran services, and transportation infrastructure. The Swamp Lands Acts of 1849, 1850 and 1860 are an excellent example of this strategy. Under different versions of this law, Congress ceded millions of acres of federal wetlands to 15 landlocked and coastal states. The area was „reclaimed“ (i.e. drained) and sold by the states, with the profits used to fund flood protection. This strategy was later used in the Morrill Act of 1862, which granted land grants to states to fund the establishment of state colleges. Some political scientists have a stricter interpretation of cooperative federalism. John Kincaid, for example, set the period 1954-78 as the period of cooperative federalism in the United States. Since the late 1970s, there has been a shift to the model of dual federalism, particularly under the administration of Ronald Reagan.

In general, cooperative federalism claims that government power is not concentrated at any level of government or authority. Instead, national and state governments share power. For example, bureaucratic agencies at the national and state levels typically manage government programs together. Since the responsibilities of governments are divided among many levels of government, citizens and organized interests have many access points to influence public order. „. While Congress has the power to regulate private activity under the trade clause, we have recognized Congress` power to give states the choice to regulate that activity according to federal standards or to anticipate state law through federal regulations. Hodel v. Virginia Surface Mining & Reclamation Association. See also FERC v. Mississippi. This agreement, dubbed the „Cooperative Federalism Program,“ is replicated by Hodel, loc. cit., in many federal legal systems.