If Germany defeated the Soviet Union, Europe`s most important front would be closed. Roosevelt believed that if the Soviets were defeated, the Allies were much more likely to lose. Roosevelt concluded that the United States should help the Soviets fight the Germans.  Soviet Ambassador Maxim Litvinnov contributed significantly to the Lend-Lease Treaty of 1941. American deliveries to the Soviet Union can be divided into the following phases: by the summer of 1940, the France had fallen into the hands of the Nazis, and Britain had fought practically alone against Germany on land, at sea and in the air. After the new British Prime Minister Winston Churchill personally asked Roosevelt for help, the US president agreed to exchange more than 50 obsolete American destroyers for 99-year-old leases at British bases in the Caribbean and Newfoundland for use as US air and naval bases. Canada had its own version of Lend-Lease for the United Kingdom.   Canada gave Britain donations totalling $3.5 billion during the war, as well as an interest-free loan of $1 billion; Britain used the money to buy Canadian food and war goods.    Canada lent Britain $1.2 billion on a long-term basis immediately after the war; These loans were repaid in full at the end of 2006. . The sum of defence materials and services that Canada received through lend-lease channels was approximately $419,500,000. The 1941 Lend-Lease Treaty began when public opinion in the United States wanted to increase rearmament to help the Allies.
President Franklin Roosevelt and Prime Minister Winston Churchill signed a defense agreement to transfer 50 U.S. destroyers to England in exchange for 99-year land leases for U.S. military bases. Eight British territories would be used. Newfoundland was a British territory at the time. Loan and lease grants to the USSR were nominally administered by Stettinius. Roosevelt`s Soviet Protocol Committee was dominated by Harry Hopkins and General John York, who were very much in favor of providing „unconditional aid.“ Few Americans rejected Soviet aid until 1943.  In June 1941, a few weeks after the German invasion of the USSR, the first British relief convoy set out along the dangerous Arctic sea route to Murmansk and arrived in September. It carried 40 Hawker Hurricanes as well as 550 mechanics and pilots from 151 Wing as part of Operation Benedict to provide air defense of the port and train Soviet pilots. The convoy was the first of many convoys to Murmansk and Arkhangelsk in what became known as Arctic convoys, the return ships carrying the gold with which the USSR paid the United States.  The task of managing a program of this magnitude was staggering. The three program administrators – Harry Hopkins (March-August 1941), Edward Stettinius (August 1941-September 1943) and Leo Crowley (September 1943-1945) – all faced enormous administrative and logistical challenges.
These included how best to prepare inadequate Moroccan ports to receive supplies for Allied troops in North Africa; how to provide American troops in the Pacific with food from New Zealand, which the civilian population of Great Britain also needed; and how to provide civilians in different regions with what they need most. This law authorized the president to „sell, transfer property, exchange, lease, lend, or otherwise dispose of any defense to such a government [whose defense is essential to the defense of the United States].“ In fact, Roosevelt allowed the transfer of military equipment to Britain to be allowed on the condition that it would eventually be paid for or returned if it was not destroyed. To manage the program, Roosevelt created the Office of Lend-Lease Administration under the direction of former director of the steel industry Edward R. Stettinius. In response to Prime Minister Winston S. Churchill`s February 1941 request to „give us the tools, and we will finish the job,“ President Franklin D. Roosevelt proposed a bill that would allow the United States to „manufacture, sell, lend, transfer, lease, or trade“ weapons with any country that „the president considers essential to the defense of the United States.“ The bill sparked a storm of controversy between supporters of intervention and isolationists, who saw it as a first step toward U.S. involvement in the war. Despite strong protests from isolationists, including Father Charles E.
Coughlin, the Lend-Lease Act was passed by both houses of Congress in March 1941 by a large majority. „And so our country will be what our people have proclaimed – the arsenal of democracy.“ In a November 1943 report to Congress, President Roosevelt said of Allied involvement in reverse lend-lease: (RCAF Station Gander) at Gander International Airport, built in Newfoundland in 1936, was leased by Britain to Canada for 99 years because it desperately needed the movement of fighter and bomber aircraft to Britain.  The lease became redundant when Newfoundland became the tenth province of Canada in 1949. Nikita Khrushchev, who had served as a military commissar and mediator between Stalin and his generals during the war, directly addressed the importance of lend-lease aid in his memoirs: the Arctic route was the shortest and most direct route for loan and rental aid to the USSR, although it was also the most dangerous, for it passed through German-occupied Norway. .